How to Buy a Shipping Container

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By Winifred Bird / Published by Dwell
You've decided to join the shipping container revolution. Your plans are drawn up, your site is prepared, and your welding torch is ready to transform a discarded steel box into the durable, stylish, and sustainable home of your dreams. Now what? To help you get started, we asked architects, DIY home builders, and shipping container experts from around the world for their inside tips on bringing home the best possible container for your building needs.

The first step, they agree, is to find a reputable distributor. "Shipping companies don’t want people calling them for one or ten containers. They prefer to sell to dealers," says Barry Naef, director of the ISBU Association (ISBU stands for intermodal steel building units, the term for containers used specifically for construction). He recommends checking the extensive international list of dealers on the Eco Green Sources website. And don’t despair if you live far from the ocean. Thanks to a network of inland distribution hubs, says Naef, "there are as many [containers] in the mid-U.S. and Canada as there are at the ports, at nearly the same prices." A dealer can help arrange for overland transport of your container via 18-wheeler truck.

How to Buy a Shipping Container - Photo 1 of 12 - One of the most important steps in buying your own shipping container is finding a reputable distributor.

One of the most important steps in buying your own shipping container is finding a reputable distributor.

Other sourcing options exist, too. In Zambia, a local NGO supplied Tokyo-based architect Mikiko Endo with old containers it had used to transport donations (she transformed them into maternity clinic housing). In Israel, architect Galit Golany purchased a refurbished container from a prefab construction company, then fixed up the turnkey unit with timber cladding, roofing, a deck, and a stone base. Stephen Shoup, founder of Oakland’s building Lab, agrees that looking for a distributor that will do some basic modifications prior to sale is a good idea.

"It’s tons of fun to be standing there with a plasma cutter and a welder and be hacking into these things and pasting them back together, but if you’re encountering engineering issues, then you’re going to need licensed welders. That cost is much more controllable when done at the fabrication shop or shipyard," says Shoup. Another option is to purchase a container manufactured specifically for building, like the ones from Toronto-based MEKA or Silhouette Spice in Tokyo. These can be cheaply transported using existing global shipping networks, but are tailor-made to meet building codes (Japan’s are especially strict).

How to Buy a Shipping Container - Photo 2 of 12 - Keeping size in mind is key. Container lengths vary from 8 to 53 feet, with 20 feet and 40 feet being the most common.

Keeping size in mind is key. Container lengths vary from 8 to 53 feet, with 20 feet and 40 feet being the most common.

If you do decide to purchase a genuine seafaring container, you’ll need to keep a number of factors in mind. First is size. Although dimensions are generally standardized, your safest bet for projects that join multiple units is to purchase a single brand (perhaps one whose logo you fancy). Houston-based architect Christopher Robertson, who has designed both upscale residential and disaster-relief housing using containers, recommends choosing "high cubes" (HQ), which are about a foot taller than standard, because the smaller size can feel claustrophobic after installing insulation. 

"There’s a real misconception that building with containers is absurdly inexpensive. Unfortunately, that’s not true at all"


Lengths vary from 8 to 53 feet, with 20 feet and 40 feet being the most common. Whichever you choose, Robertson cautions that the costs of transportation and modification quickly add up. "There’s a real misconception that building with containers is absurdly inexpensive. Unfortunately, that’s not true at all," he says.  

Assuming you’re still hooked on the many other benefits of container construction, you’ll need to think about age and condition. Options range from virtually unscathed "one-trippers" to eight-to-ten-year-old retired containers, with varying degrees of rust, dents, and warping. Your choice depends on your design goals. For Brook van der Linde, an artist who built a DIY container home with her husband in Asheville, cost and sustainability were more important than perfect condition. "Our goal was to use materials that were headed for the landfill. Our containers were constructed in 2005 so they had a good long life going to China and back," she says.  Robertson, on the other hand, sought out one-trippers for his residential project. "They’re a little more expensive but they look a lot better. If they start having a lot of dings and rusts, you lose the aesthetic pleasure."

Although a container’s history is trackable via its serial number, the best way to assess its condition is through a visual once-over prior to purchase. Arrive at the lot armed with a level to check for excessive warping and a checklist of potential problems, such as holes, dents, damaged door seals, and corrosion (a little rust is par for the course). Don’t forget to use your nose, as well. The wood flooring of most containers is treated with toxic pesticides, which you’ll need to seal or remove, and others may have been used to transport unpleasantly odiferous contents.

Finally, once you’ve made your choice, take a deep breath. The toughest—and most enjoyable—phase of building your container home is still to come.

Take a look at 10 inspiring examples of shipping container architecture here.

How to Buy a Shipping Container - Photo 3 of 12 - A small shipping container home in New Plymouth, New Zealand features a retractable porch.

A small shipping container home in New Plymouth, New Zealand features a retractable porch.

How to Buy a Shipping Container - Photo 4 of 12 - Purchasing a lot off the Delaware River in Pennsylvania, Martha Moseley and Bill Mathesius adapted an unused concrete foundation—remnants of its previous owner’s abandoned plans—to create a home that’s uniquely their own. "We were inspired by the site, and our desire to have something cool and different," says Moseley.

Purchasing a lot off the Delaware River in Pennsylvania, Martha Moseley and Bill Mathesius adapted an unused concrete foundation—remnants of its previous owner’s abandoned plans—to create a home that’s uniquely their own. "We were inspired by the site, and our desire to have something cool and different," says Moseley.

How to Buy a Shipping Container - Photo 5 of 12 - While shopping for containers, Hill was instantly drawn to this one’s existing blue color and chose to buy it and leave it as is. Poteet added floor-to-ceiling sliding doors to allow light in, as well as a cantilevered overhang to shade a window on the left side, which houses a small garden storage area.

While shopping for containers, Hill was instantly drawn to this one’s existing blue color and chose to buy it and leave it as is. Poteet added floor-to-ceiling sliding doors to allow light in, as well as a cantilevered overhang to shade a window on the left side, which houses a small garden storage area.

How to Buy a Shipping Container - Photo 6 of 12 - Atelier Riri devised creative ways to make living inside a shipping container in Indonesia’s tropical climate both comfortable and economical. The architects layered recycled pine, glass wool, and planter mesh on top of the home to help keep temperatures down.

Atelier Riri devised creative ways to make living inside a shipping container in Indonesia’s tropical climate both comfortable and economical. The architects layered recycled pine, glass wool, and planter mesh on top of the home to help keep temperatures down.

How to Buy a Shipping Container - Photo 7 of 12 - Two San Francisco art and travel addicts overhauled a loft—and customized a pair of shipping containers—to accommodate their collection and reflect their passions.

Two San Francisco art and travel addicts overhauled a loft—and customized a pair of shipping containers—to accommodate their collection and reflect their passions.

How to Buy a Shipping Container - Photo 8 of 12 - This modern residence and gallery near San Jose, Costa Rica uses metal boxes like puzzle pieces to create a photographer's dream home.

This modern residence and gallery near San Jose, Costa Rica uses metal boxes like puzzle pieces to create a photographer's dream home.

How to Buy a Shipping Container - Photo 9 of 12 - The recycled shipping containers were sourced from the Pacific Port of Caldera in Costa Rica. "Discarded shipping containers are all over the world and cost relatively little," Saxe says. "With a bit of creativity and understanding of local building techniques, the interiors can be modified for any client."

The recycled shipping containers were sourced from the Pacific Port of Caldera in Costa Rica. "Discarded shipping containers are all over the world and cost relatively little," Saxe says. "With a bit of creativity and understanding of local building techniques, the interiors can be modified for any client."

How to Buy a Shipping Container - Photo 10 of 12 - This beautifully designed container home with an incredible backdrop was built with a mixture of 20- and 40-foot shipping containers by architect Narongdej Nilapat.

This beautifully designed container home with an incredible backdrop was built with a mixture of 20- and 40-foot shipping containers by architect Narongdej Nilapat.

How to Buy a Shipping Container - Photo 11 of 12 - The open concept Coromandel Bach is a container home that reinterprets the New Zealand building tradition of crafting wood. Located on the North Island’s Coromandel Peninsula, this container house captures the beautiful simplicity of living with nature. Natural timber provides a seamless connection to its surroundings. Designed by Crosson Clarke Carnachan Architects, this unique holiday home can be easily boxed up when not in use. A simple mechanism opens the deck upon arrival. The house has a simple rectangular open plan that extends the interior space to the outside and the ocean beyond.

The open concept Coromandel Bach is a container home that reinterprets the New Zealand building tradition of crafting wood. Located on the North Island’s Coromandel Peninsula, this container house captures the beautiful simplicity of living with nature. Natural timber provides a seamless connection to its surroundings. Designed by Crosson Clarke Carnachan Architects, this unique holiday home can be easily boxed up when not in use. A simple mechanism opens the deck upon arrival. The house has a simple rectangular open plan that extends the interior space to the outside and the ocean beyond.

How to Buy a Shipping Container - Photo 12 of 12 - This 17,000-square-foot villa by Abiboo is located in South Hampton and is bordered by the sea on two sides. The family’s passion for boating inspires the integration of the home with the seascape.

This 17,000-square-foot villa by Abiboo is located in South Hampton and is bordered by the sea on two sides. The family’s passion for boating inspires the integration of the home with the seascape.

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