World's First 3D-Printed House Springs up in Russia in 24hrs
"Printed" as a whole, rather than assembled from pre-printed panels, by Russian companies Apis Cor and PIK, construction took place at Apis Cor's test facility, with casting of self-bearing walls, partitions and building envelope completed in less than a day—and the machine time of printing rated at 24 hours.
As it was erected in winter, the concrete mixture used as printing "ink" complicated matters. With concrete liquid only at temperatures above 41°F, a tent was erected over the construction to warm things up. The equipment itself, however, is able to operate in temperatures as low as -31°F. After completing the wall structures, the printer was removed with a crane. The use of new materials, such as geopolymer, in the near-future will allow printing at any temperature.
The mineral plaster used consists of white cement and ball-shaped marble and granite crumbs, offering heat insulation and combining well with thermal insulation systems, especially those such as mineral wool. The final finish is a thin-layer decorative plaster wall that does not require further insulation. The material is easy to work with and exhibits good hydrophobic properties.
Five companies in total collaborated on the project. TechnoNICOL developed the custom roofing and insulation solutions to maximize the benefits of 3D printing. The roof is flat and the proposed solution and can effectively withstand high snow loads. It is comparable cost-wise to steel roofs, common in Russia.
The roofing carpet is made of LOGICROOF polymer membranes. Membrane patches are welded together with special equipment using hot air. Installation works at speeds of up to 1000 m² under any weather conditions. Owing to the low thermal conductivity of the material (0.022 w/sq.m), the thickness and total weight of the roofing system is much lowers than traditional insulation materials.