Bruno Taut was an early modernist architect and urban planner. After studying and doing apprentice work in architecture and construction, Taut started his own firm in Berlin with his brother Max. He wanted to marry the fine arts and applied arts, and amongst his notable early work was the Glass House, a 1914 pavilion for an exhibition in Cologne. He went on to work as the architect-in-chief for the German city of Magdeburg from 1921-24 and joined a group of forward-looking influential architects known as "The Ring" in 1925. The rise of the Nazi party forced Taut to leave Germany first for Switzerland, then for Japan, and finally for Turkey. There he taught in the architectural department in the Academy of Fine Arts and designed many buildings. He was one of the early modernists to strive to incorporate local character into his modernist thinking and when so many of his contemporaries were so enamored of white, he was a liberal user of color. He died in Istanbul in 1938.