When the French arrived in Vientiane in the late 1800s they found the ruins of a couple of temples and jungle everywhere. During French colonial rule, roughly the first half of the 20th Century, the city was built along the banks of the Mekong River. With the defeat of the French in Vietnam in the mid 1950’s and the region becoming strategically important to the Americans, Vientiane experienced a shift of tides. The influx of foreign aid through the USAID agency helped create a construction boom of sorts; administration buildings, schools and "villas" for the wealthy and foreigners. In the 60’s and 70’s, as Laos was drawn into the Vietnam war much of it’s countryside was bombed—Laos is known as the most heavily bombed nation per capita in the history of warfare. With the victory of the Pathet Lao (Land of Lao) in 1975, a communist political movement similar to the Viet Minh (and later Viet Cong) of Vietnam, all new construction ceased and one third of its population fled to exile. Being a new socialist country the Lao looked to the Soviet Union for aid. The 1980s brought new growth with the presence of some 1,500 Soviet technicians and advisors. As the Soviet Union fell apart at the end of the 1980’s, Laos began to reorient itself towards developing better relations with its southeast Asian neighbors as well as China.
The urbanized area of Vientiane is spread over 148 villages. In Laos, the "village" (ban) is the smallest administrative, religious and political unit in both rural and urban areas. The spatial division into villages reflects political, administrative, and social reality. In Vientiane, each village has it’s own food shops, scooter repair garages, pharmacy, and food stalls. One does not need to leave the village except to buy big items or for emergencies. Often, in this urban space, there is no clear separation between private homes, businesses, pedestrians and vehicles. People navigate, play, shop, eat, and rest on the street—only the tourist area and the more recent and bigger avenues have sidewalks.